CANADA DIVIDED. 147
and agree to it three times, and the governor had also to agree to it. In most things the new Canadian governments tried to follow the same plans as the British government ; but it soon appeared that they were not nearly so like it as at first seemed.
Many Gov- After the division of Canada there were ernments. six governments in British North America, not counting Cape Breton Island. The governor of Lower Canada was called the Governor-General, and was supposed to be the head of all, but each province had its own lieutenant-governor, and was practically independent of the rest. This was bad for trade, for most of the provinces tried, by putting duties on all goods coming into the country, to keep out what their neighbours made or grew. Fortunately, however, an arrangement was effected which prevented either Upper or Lower Canada charging duties on the goods of the other.
The few English people of Lower Canada were much displeased by the division of the province, for, though the long-desired house of assembly had been granted, they were so completely outnumbered by the French that they had no power in it. On the other hand, in the legislative council they outnumbered the French.
The Clergy, Under the Constitutional Act the Roman
Catholics continued to pay tithes for the support of their priests as before; while one-seventh of the lands not yet granted to settlers was set apart as Clergy Reserves for the benefit of the Protestant clergy. This, with the large grants given earlier to persons who made no use of them, prevented the settlement of much good land, and in after years was the cause of much trouble and discontent, especially in Upper Canada.,-