270 CANADIAN HISTORY FOR BOYS AND GIRLS.
A New In 1858 the British government bought
Colony. back Vancouver and took away the privileges of the Hudson's Bay Company in the country west of the Rocky Alountains, and New Caledonia became the province of British Columbia. Its first ruler was James Douglas, who continued to be governor of Vancouver, but now broke off his connection with the Hudson's Bay
Company. He was very popular
a n d w a s afterwards knighted.
Money was raised for the expenses
of government, and for road-mak-
ing and other public works, from
the sale of crown lands. In 1859
the first buildings were put up in
~. ,., the capital, which was afterwards
named New Westminster.
<> At this time life in
Justice. the colony was rough
SIR MATTHEW DEGBIE. and wild. In the mining camps
there was much drinking, gambling, and quarrelling, and many of the white men were as lawless as the Indians, who tried to prevent their going up the rivers. But in 1858 Dlatthew Begbie was appointed chief justice of British Columbia, and by his fairness and firmness soon taught the people to respect the law.
Disappoint- A season of disappointment followed the ment. first great excitement, though a few men made fortunes. Within six months a number of the adventurers had left British Columbia; but the roads made to the mining camps opened tip the country, which is rich in many things besides gold. In 1861 the discovery of new gold-fields revived the excitement.
Another boundary dispute had arisen be-San Juan. tween England and the United States. The Treaty of Oregon had left uncertain the ownership of the little island of San Juan, between Vancouver and the