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IO   FODDER AND PASTURE PLANTS.

Red Top, Fescues, Oats, etc., the inflorescence is called a panicle. When they are very short, as in the Foxtail Millets, the inflorescence has the appearance of a spike. Timothy (Plate .3) and Meadow Foxtail (Plate 4) inflorescences are extremely like regular spikes, but even in these the type is that of the ordinary panicle. This is proven by the fact that branched inflorescences occasionally occur in Timothy. Even an ear of corn is a modification of a panicle, characterized by extremely short branches from a fleshy main stem. The panicles of many grasses are differently shaped at different stages of development. Thus, in Red Top and Sheep's Fescue the branches spread during flowering and the inflorescence is therefore open and broad. When flowering is over, the branches close in to-ward the main stem, making the inflorescence contracted and narrow.

Spikelets: The ultimate branches of the inflor-
escence end with so-called spikelets, a kind of partial
inflorescence (Fig. 3). At the base of the spikelet are
two sterile glumes (Fig. 3, Gl.), though Italian and
Perennial Rye Grass have only one. Above them are
a number of fertile glumes, called lemmas (Fig. 3, L.),
which carry a flower in their axils. Each flower is

Fig. s. sp:kelet enclosed by a delicate glume called palea (Fig. 4, Pa.)
of Awnless Brome and consists chiefly of three stamens (Fig. 4, St.) and

Grass.

Natural size.   a pistil with two feathery branched stigmas (Fig. 4, P.).

Gl.—Sterile   The number of flowers varies in different grasses;

glumes.

L.—Lemma. Awnless Brome has seven to nine in each spikelet, whereas Red Top has only one. In the latter the whole spikelet consists of the two sterile glumes (Fig. 3, Gl.), the lemma (Fig. 4. L.) and the palea (Fig. 4, Pa.) enclosing the flower proper.

Fertilization: Before blossoming the
glumes tightly enclose the flowers, and
nothing is seen of the stamens and pistil.
At flowering time the glumes generally
open wide and the stamens and pistil are

visible (Fig. 4). Dustlike masses are soon

`Q produced from the stamens and carried

away by the wind. This is the pollen,
which, when caught by the branches of

Fig. 4. Flower with enclosing the stigmas, induces the lower part of the
   glumes of Tall Oat Grass.   pistil or ovary (Fig. 4, O.) to develop into

Four times natural size.

L.—Lemma.   P.—Stigma. fruit. In wheat, oats and barley the pollen

Pa.—Palea.   O.—Ovary.

St.—Stamen.   is generally transported to the stigmas be-
fore the glumes of the spikelet begin to separate; each flower is con-

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