AWNLESS BROME GRASS (Bromus inermis Leyss).
Plate i3; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 23.
Other Latin name: Schedonurus inermis (Leyss) Beauv.
Other English names: Brome Grass, Smooth Brome Grass, Hungarian Brome Grass, Hungarian Fodder Grass, Austrian Brome Grass, Austrian Brome Hay.
Botanical description: Awnless Brome Grass is perennial with a creeping rootstock which produces numerous scaly runners. These are a kind of underground stems, the leaves of which are reduced to mere scales. They are much branched, root at the joints and produce numerous upright stems of the ordinary type. The runners being long and widely creeping, the upright stems produced from them are scattered and the plants are therefore not tufted but form loose mats. This is especially the case in light, loose soil. The stems are numerous and rather stout. They are from one to four feet high and carry many spreading leaves. These are long and broad, smooth, and vary from light to dark green. The panicle is generally large with branches spreading in all directions. After flowering it usually becomes narrow and sometimes one-sided with nodding branches. The spikelets, which are about an inch long, are generally brownish-red when old. One spikelet contains seven to nine flowers, each enclosed by two more or less blunt glumes. The grass is called Awnless Brome because the outer glume of the flower has no awn, although occasionally forms are found which have awned glumes, like most other species of the genus.
Geographical distribution: Awnless Brome Grass is a native of central Europe and Asia, extending from Holland and France to China. Although its range of distribution is very wide, the wild form occurs in rather scattered localities. In recent years, however, it has been introduced in a great number of places and is now fairly common in practically all European countries. It was introduced into Canada about twenty years ago and is widely distributed, especially in the Prairie Provinces.
Habitat: It grows naturally in dry, gravelly places, on river-banks and hills, along borders of woods, etc., and more rarely in meadows.
Cultural conditions: Awnless Brome Grass does not require a heavy, good soil but thrives on loose and comparatively poor land