204 MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA
wounded; 118 prisoners were taken. Of the troops, two men were killed and seven or eight wounded.
The rebels of St. Benoit, judging discretion the better part of valour, surrendered to Major Townsend, and Sir John Colborne, having witnessed the closing scenes of the "melancholy drama of the Grand Brule," returned to 'Montreal. The militia who took part in the expedition did credit to their traditions. "Nothing," says Sir Richard Bonnycastle, "could exceed the steadiness and good conduct of the Montreal Cavalry, the Montreal Rifles, and Globensky's Volunteers." So ended the campaign of 1837. The leaders, with Papineau well to the front, had fled to the United States; and their unfortunate followers, realizing at last the hopelessness of their position, were thankful to be permitted to return to their homes in peace, where any homes remained to which they might return. The exiled leaders, having failed lament-ably in their attempt to upset the Government from within, were still to see what might be done from without, with the assistance of their American sympathisers.
The early part of 1838 passed uneventfully in Lower Canada. Durham landed at Quebec toward the end of May, and found himself immediately confronted with the exceedingly difficult and delicate problem of what to do with the leaders of the rebellion. The High Commissioner would have been saved a peck of trouble if Colborne had settled this question during his brief reign as Administrator, but the bluff old soldier was far too shrewd to meddle with such double-edged affairs of state. It was enough for him to suppress the rebellion; Durham could have the dubious privilege of deciding the fate of the rebels. The High Commissioner, after much anxious thought, pardoned the rank and file; outlawed Papineau, Cartier, Perrault, Brown, and about a dozen other leaders of the insurrection who had fled to the United States; and exiled to Bermuda, Wolfred Nelson, Bouchette, Viger, Girouard, and many others who had been captured and were awaiting sentence in the Montreal gaol. Remem-