CAUSES OF THE GREAT WORLD WAR 3
people like the French, as implying accord with Germany against her Russian ally, and being a contravention of the agreement existing between France and Russia. Throughout the negotations that filled those epochal days, the attitude of Russia was definite and clear. She had in memory the action of Austria toward Serbia and herself some six years before.
In 1908, when the Young Turk Revolution had disorganized Turkey, Austria annexed the occupied territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina, lands which formerly had belonged to the old Serbian Kingdom. At that time Serbia would undoubtedly have entered the field against Austria if Russia, the protector of the new Karageorgevitch dynasty in Belgrade, had been in a position to give aid. This Russia could not do. Weakened by her disastrous effort against Japan, she was practically powerless for the time being, and had to suffer the humiliation of giving her pledge to Austria that she would not aid Serbia. This had not passed out of Russia's mind, and now, when Austria sought again to humiliate Serbia, Russia was in a better position for defending the kindred Slav nation. On July 25th, Russia told England that Serbia would engage to punish those who were proved to be guilty of the Serajevo crime, but would not accept all the demands of Austria, and that, if Serbia appealed to arbitration, Russia was willing to abide by the decision, in council, of Great Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. On July 28th, Austria declared war against Serbia, but even at this late hour all hope of successful negotiation had not been abandoned. On the same day Russia warned Germany that she had ordered the mobilization of her southern districts, and that the decree would be officially promulgated on the following day. This caused Austria to halt, and she replied to Russia offering assurances that she would respect the integrity and independence of Serbia. This discussion between Russia and Austria was still proceeding on August 1st. From first to last Russia