end in view began to show very substantial fruit. In fact the 1911 industrial census not only gratified the pride and desire of the most thorough-going advocates of industrialism, but it even raised some doubts in the minds of careful observers, not on account of the growth of the country's factories, but on account of the relative lack of growth of the rural population, the tillers of the soil, who were needed to provide a market for the output which those factories produced. The reciprocity proposals of the Liberal party, which were put forward mainly as a means of improving the status of the agriculturist, had just been voted down as much too radical a change in the nation's fiscal policy; but for all that, the politicians began about this time to cease paying much attention to demands for the fostering of new industries and to concern themselves very largely with the characteristic problems of the "primary producers," and especially of the farmers.
Three factors operated to bring about the extremely rapid growth of Canada's industries during the decade ending in 1910, different industries being affected by different factors, and a few by two factors or by all three. The most forcible of the three was the vast expenditure which went on throughout that decade and the three following years, upon the provision of new transportation systems and the enlargement of old ones, an expenditure very moderately estimated at $74,000,000 a year between 1907 and 1913. This affected mainly the steel industry, and in a lesser degree cement and lumber. The second of the three factors was the increased consuming power of Canada herself, arising in part from increase of population, but still more from a very rapid rise in the general wealth and standard of living. The third was the increased capacity of the country for supplying raw materials for certain export industries, chiefly foodstuffs, but including also lumber, pulp, paper, and a few other commodities. The consumptive power created by the constant supply of new foreign capital for railway develop-