HISTORY OF CANADA. 7
populous and strongly defended after the Iroquois fashion by a triple palisade, lay where now lies a city, of more than 250,006 inhabitants, bearing the name given by Cartier to the lofty hill behind it—Montreal (Mont Royal). The Indians of Hochelaga were of Huron-Iroquois stock. Cartier and his friends, being deemed of celestial origin, met with a very hospitable reception. Returning to Stadacona, they spent the winter in a rude fort on the shores of the St. Croix, that being the name given by Cartier to the stream which we know as the St. Charles. Scurvy carried off many of his men, and in the spring of 1536 he returned to France with a sadly diminished crew, taking with him, however, Chief Donnacona and some of his tribe, whom he had treacherously seized.
Pioneer French Settlers.—The French king was again at war with his great rival, and not until 1541 was Cartier able to revisit the new world. In that year Francis I., with a view to a more formal assertion of his claim, planned to settle a colony in New France. Roberval was appointed viceroy, with wide powers for its government. Cartier was named as captain-general to lead the colonists to their new home. Roberval delaying, Cartier sailed without him in the spring of 1541, planted the colony above Quebec near the promontory of Cap Rouge, and called the place Charlesbourg Royal. Donnacona had died in France, and in consequence his tribesmen of Stadacona looked with some distrust upon the Frenchmen. After another visit to Hochelaga—doubtless to inquire further for a passage-way to Cathay—Cartier and his colonists settled down for the winter in Charlesbourg Royal. Roberval failed to appear with supplies; and cold, disease and famine so discouraged these pioneers that with the opening, spring those who survived fled with Cartier back to France. Roberval came out with other colonists in 1542 ; but, after two winters spent among the now unfriendly Indians, they, too, returned home (1544).
Growing Importance of New France.—During all the remaining years of the sixteenth century Old France was torn by war, and no man iii public life there had much time to think of the New France across the Atlantic. But New France was not abandoned. Year after year the Norman, Breton and Basque fishermen spent the season on the Banks of Newfoundland, and